Theory and methodology
- Gavrilov A.A. About the nature of geomorphologic convergence and homology phenomena.
Unification, development trends, self-organization and harmony of relief-forming processes are based on the principle of minimizing the spending of internal energy of geomorphologic objects and the Curie principle which is realized by adaptation of their morphology and symmetry to the symmetry of the force field in the morphogenesis sphere. It is energy factors that provide for the selection of morphological characteristics, the homology and convergent development of landforms, on the one hand, and, on the other, their stability, lifetime and dominating role in the formation of the Earth’s morphological landscape. Principal morphological classes of convergent geomorphologic objects are identified, and the homologous series of landforms are specified, as well as two types of convergent morphogenesis.
- Sudakova N.G., Antonov S.I., Vvedenskaya A.I., Kostomakha V.A., Nemtsova G.M. Palaeogeographic zoning of the East European Plain as a basis for the geoecological assessment of geosystems’ sustainability.
Palaeogeographic (PG) direction in geoecology is elaborated basing on the original integrated environmental and palaeogeographic zoning of the Russian Plain. The suggested model demonstrates the interaction of systemic factors of morpholithogenesis and the assessment criteria for its geoecological sustainability. Zoning units (zones, provinces, regions, districts) are shown on the map of the Central region with detailed geological and geomorphologic descriptions and the subsequent area-targeted assessment of the morpholithogenic base sustainability. The regularities of sustainable development of geosystems and trends of spatial and temporal variability of indicators revealed through the PG examination are relevant to the PG reconstructions and geoecological forecasts.
- Safonov S.A. Global value chains as a factor of shifts in the geography of world economy.
Transformations in the modern world economy are so rapid, that a phenomenon of global value chains (GVC) could change the regional and global production in some branches just during a decade. The GVC conception is one of the most efficient modern methods for studying the essence of countries’ interaction within the international division of labor. Participation in the GVC, as well as the GVC-focused policy, could provide a strong impulse for quantitative and qualitative growth of production in both developing and developed countries. Countries of the whole world are looking for their own ways and niches to participate in the GVC, which changes their positions in the international labor division.
Geography and ecology
- Lokoshchenko M.A., Elansky N.F., Trifanova A.V., Belikov I.B., Skorokhod A.I. About extreme levels of air pollution in Moscow.
According to continuous 11 years-long measurements (2002–2012) at the joint ecological station of the A.M. Obukhov IAP RAS and the MSU Faculty of Geography data on the upper and lower limits of the surface concentrations of minor atmospheric gases (ozone, nitrogen oxide and dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide) are provided. It is shown that around the MSU, in the southwestern part of Moscow, far from production enterprises and large highways, maximum allowable concentrations are very rarely exceeded: such cases account for about 0,1% for O3, NO and CO; 0,01% for NO2 and 0,001% for SO2. The highest average 10 min concentrations were 150 ppb for ozone; 996 and 226 ppb for NO and NO2 respectively; 16 ppm for CO; and 276 ppb for SO2. Anomalously high air pollution is usually characteristic of longlasting anti-cyclonic conditions. The highest concentrations of O3, NO2 and CO were recorded in 2010 and 2002 summers during a smoky haze in extraordinary hot weather; while on the contrary, those of SO2 occurred during the deep freeze in 2006 winter. The data of «ECHO-1» and «MODOS» sodars allowed correlating the record-breaking high levels of air pollution with both temperature stratification and wind.
- Feodoritov V.M., Sharapova A.V., Koroleva T.V., Krechetov P.P. State of vegetation in the disposal areas of rocket stages (Central Kazakhstan).
The structure of vegetation of semi-desert landscapes in the disposal areas of the «Soyuz» launchervehicle first stages in the south-west of the Karaganda region (Republic of Kazakhstan) is considered. The degree of the rocket-space activity impact was compared with traditional types of the anthropogenic transformation of arid ecosystems, i.e. grazing and fires. Plant communities in disposal areas of different ages were classified according to the degree of degradation on the basis of phytocoenotic, structural and cenopopulation indicators. The vulnerability of different ecosystems to the rocket-space activity impact was evaluated. Four complexes of associations were identified in ten disposal areas of first rocket stages side blocks, namely Caragana-Artemisia, Stipa-Artemisia, Ceratocarpus-Artemisia, and Climacoptera-Artemisia. They represent various groups of associations, united by their position in landscape and the degree of agricultural transformation. The influence of rocket-space activity includes mechanical, chemical and pyrogenic impact on ecosystems. In general, it is of local character. It is only pyrogenic impact in disposal areas of rocket stages that in some cases could produce major disturbances of vegetation. The qualitative indicators of phytocenosis (the ratio of ecological-coenotic groups of plants and the age structure of the dominants) gain in importance for the degree of degradation assessment with the increasing age of the rocket stages disposal areas. Usually communities with the highest degree of degradation are forming in the main engines disposal areas and within the burned areas. In most cases, such communities occupy less than 100 m2 (for one disposal area). Communities of Caragana-Artemisia complex are the most vulnerable to the technogenic impact in the disposal areas of rocket stages. Because of the slow growth of Caragana balchaschensis and Salsola arbuscula shrubs the restorative successions could take more than 20 years there. Communities of Ceratocarpus-Artemisia and Climacoptera-Artemisia complexes, which have homogenous floristic composition and simple structure, could restore in the disposal areas of rocket stages in less than 5 years after the impact.
- Adishcheva O.S., Malkhazova S.M., Orlov D.S. West Nile Fever in Russia
West Nile Fever (WNF) is a dangerous natural focal infectious disease. WNF was recently introduced to the Russian Federation where first human cases were registered in 1997. The nosoarea of WNF constantly expands and at the moment human cases have been noted in 20 administrative regions of the Russian Federation. The paper gives complete information on WNF morbidity in Russia since it was firstly. registered. The maps showing the distribution and dynamics of the disease in the regions of Russia were compiled. The main geographical features of the WNF distribution in Russia depending on the climatic conditions are revealed. The potential nosoarea of the disease is given as well.
- Lazarenko V.A. Inflow of migrants from the former USSR countries to the regions of Russia.
After the collapse of USSR a new object of study appeared for the scientists. It is the international migration between Russia and the former USSR countries. The retrospective review of migration relations of the post-Soviet Russia and these countries shows the regions which are most attractive for migrants. Such analysis helps to make forecasts about the resettlement of new migrants. The article presents the results of studying the migration flows from the neighboring countries to Russia in the period of 1992 to 2010. The hypothesis of the study is based on the synthetic theory of international migration which assumes that after transition to the market economy the international migrants move to the countries and regions with already available close communications. To test the hypothesis, we calculated the intensity of migration ties between Russia and CIS countries and the migration gain in the regions of Russia due to the inflow from the neighboring countries. Our calculations show that despite the significance of the borderline factor it does not always determine the choice of the place of residence in Russia.
- Sebentsov А.B., Kolossov V.A., Zotova M.V. Tourism and cross-border cooperation in the Kaliningrad region.
Until 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast (region) was a contiguous part of the Soviet Union. It was inaccessible for foreigners (largely because of the Baltic naval fleet bases and other military contingents staying there), and therefore featured on no international touristic maps. Incorporated into the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) as a part of the westward expansion of the USSR into former Eastern Prussia at the end of the World War II, the region lacks contiguity with the rest of Russia, but it was then of less concern. Indeed, it was a part of the western bastion of the Soviet Union protecting the ‘Hero city’ of Leningrad. In 1990–91 with (re-) establishment of independence of the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), and of Belarus as well, the Kaliningrad region became physically separated from the rest of Russia. Since 2004 the region has been surrounded by member states of the European Union (Poland and Lithuania). Such ‘exclavity’ results in serious problems for economic development, social integration and political relations. The role and nature of (international) tourism can be seen as a barometer for a number of these geopolitically-related issues.
- Pisarchuk N.M., Novenko E.Yu., Kozlov D.N., Shilov P.M. Influence of climate changes on forest ecosystems and peatland development in the Central Forest State Reserve.
The paper presents the results of studies on the relationship between the Middle and Late Holocene climate changes and the evolution of spruce forests (Piceetum myrtilloso-sphagnosum), the typical geosystem of the southern taiga subzone within the East European plain. The history of successions of forest-forming tree species within a sample plot and the intensity of paludification processes were traced basing on the pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating. The data obtained showed that the areas of present-day spruce forests, were covered by broadleaf-spruce forests with significant share of broadleaf tree species (7000–2900 cal. yr. BP) and broadleaf-spruce forests with high abundance of spruce (2900–800 cal. yr. BP). Despite significant fluctuations of temperature and precipitation in the second half of the Holocene, the broadleaf-coniferous forests continued their existence in the study area for a long time. The process of paludification and development of the Sphagnum spruce forest started about 800 cal. yr. BP as a result of climate moistening and cooling during the Little Ice Age. During the Middle and Late Holocene the peat accumulation rate in a small depression within the sample plot varied between 0.08–0.14 mm/year. A sharp increase in peat vertical growth was registered for the last 500 years, when the rate of peat accumulation increased 5 times up to 0.44 mm/year. The increase in peat accumulation rate could be attributed to climatic causes, so the recent climate changes will perhaps contribute to further peatland growth.
- At the dissertation councils of the Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University in 2015
- The 80th anniversary of Gennadiy Aleksandrovich Saph’yanov
- The 80th anniversary of Valeriy Mikhailovich Evstigneev