- Giter B.A., Grechko E.A., Kolosov V.A., Mironenko K.V., Pilka M.E., Samburova E.N., Sluka N.A., Tikunova I.N., Tkachenko T.Kh., Fedorenko A.V., Fomichev P.Yu. Main Research divections in the world economy geography
The experience of research in the field of geography of world economy as a new line in the Russian social and economic geography founded in the early 1990-s by N.V. Alisov is summarized. The contribution of N.S. Mironenko to the development of this branch of science is evaluated using the bibliometric approach to describe his creative career. Main stages of research by the MSU Department of Geography of World Economy are identified and the principal scientific results are discussed, such as the idea of cycles in the world economic and spatial development and that of the world economic transition; the rationale for the center-periphery structure of the global economy; urban centric model of the spatial pattern of world economy. A number of immediate tasks facing the MSU scientific school of geography of world economy are identified.
Theory and methodology
- Savoskul M.S. Territorial systems of the international migrations of population
A concept of territorial migration systems (TMS) is presented which considers the international migrations of population as a complex phenomenon of particular regional, social and temporal dimensions with specific trends of development. Theoretical approaches to migration systems analysis are reviewed. The analysis of migrations between Russia and Germany made it possible to identify the trends of TMS formation and evolution. Principal stages of TMS development are discussed, as well as the process of migrants’ integration in the age of globalization.
- Khoroshev A.V. Landscape-geochemical basis of designing the ecological network of agrolandscapes (case study of a middle taiga landscape in the Arkhangelsk oblast).
Buffer zones within an agrolandscape are designed to isolate the vulnerable objects from undesirable or excessive matter flows, thus becoming mandatory elements of the ecological network. Our hypothesis is that under a certain spatial structure of catena and a certain critical width of a buffer zone the accumulative elements of catena will not be exposed to the polluting lateral flows from cultivated lands. The hypothesis was tested within a cultivated area of the middle taiga landscape in the southern part of the Arkhangelsk oblast. The trends of spatial distribution and migration of chemical elements in the taiga landscape were revealed. Location of the buffer elements of the ecological network for the protection of water bodies and floodplains against the chemical pollution was suggested with particular account of the different types of landscape neighborhood. The deluvial fans along the valley footslopes favor the deposition of the major part of matter washed away from the cultivated steep slopes. The terrace footslopes need an effective biogeochemical barrier which could be provided by tall grass meadows dominated by Filipendula ulmaria. The ecological network should be enforced in the deeply incised gullies with steep slopes.
Geography and ecology
- Korbut V.V. Natural complex, “green islands” and the ecological network of the Moscow megalopolis in the context of the ornithological approach
Green islands of the Moscow natural complex were studied as a habitat for Passeriformes. Their spatial distribution within the complex was analyzed. It was found that the species diversity and the abundance of birds depend on the degree of urbanization of the elements of natural complex, as well as their fragmentation and mosaic structure and the ratio of cultural and natural elements. These parameters are critical for the evaluation of the potential of natural-cultural urban ecosystems while designing and maintaining the ecological network.
- Dikareva T.V., Rumyantsev V.Yu. Cartographic analysis of allergenic plants distribution in Russia
By the end of the XXth century allergy became one of the most widespread diseases in the industrial countries. One of the causes of allergy is plant pollen. The allergy to pollen, or pollinosis, is the disease of one in four inhabitants of our planet. The distribution of allergenic plants in Russia is rather poorly studied. We selected for the analysis 119 allergenic species which are really hazardous for allergy sufferers, i.e. the most widespread or producing the largest amount of pollen. A series of maps was compiled to show the distribution of the species. The analysis revealed the principal regularities of allergenic plants distribution in Russia. The Ryazan oblast is the most dangerous region of Russia during spring and in summer it is the Voronezh oblast. In spring the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and the Magadan oblast are the least dangerous, while the latter is the least dangerous in summer as well. The maps could be a reference source for allergologists and allergy sufferers.
Methods of geographical studies
- Tikunov V.S., Chereshnya O.Yu. Economic index for the regions of the Russian Federation
At present a lot of techniques for the assessment of the state of economy in different countries and regions are available. The attempts are made to evaluate both economic growth and the economic progress of the territories. The Russian experience in elaborating such approaches is applied just in particular regions. A technique of the integral assessment of the economic progress and its components in the regions of the Russian Federation using the economic index is suggested. The index takes into consideration the available experience of similar techniques; however the task of minimizing the number of indicators was particularly important in order to focus the attention on the most critical ones and to facilitate the interpretation of results by decision-makers. Nothing but formalized numerical official statistical data was used for the index calculation, thus escaping possible errors of judgmental evaluation. The index was calculated in two stages. In our opinion, the selected quantitative indicators are easy to use and, at the same time, provide a comprehensive picture of the qualitative changes in economy, the utilization of resource potential of a region, the scope of people’s individual consumption and the production of goods and services. They are the gross regional product (GRP), fixed assets value, direct foreign investments (DFI) and fixed investments. These indicators are informative in terms of the absolute contribution to the economic development of a region. For further analysis and mapping it was necessary to calculate two versions of the index, i.e. using the absolute values of indicators and those related to the mean annual population numbers. The results could be applied for monitoring the changes in the level of economic development, thus contributing to the solution of the consistent regional problems.
- Starikov N.A. Typology of world countries according to the specific features of food situation
A technique of the food problem evaluation using the concept of food situation is described. The principal factors influencing the formation of the food situation are analyzed. The method of calculating the Food Consumption Index (FCI) as a basic indicator of food situation in the countries is suggested. Complex analysis of the FCI, the demographic pressure on the agriculture and the countries’ position in the transnational food circulation system allows the typological ranking of the countries in terms of the food situation. The resulting typological groups are briefly characterized.
- Fomkina A.A. Trans-district centers of social infrastructure: a new approach to their identification (case study of the Tver oblast)
The article develops an idea of trans-district infrastructure centers. The author suggests a new approach to the identification of the trans-district centers of social infrastructure and the territories under their control. The technique is based on the information about the government agencies located in the center. It is also necessary to know about their territorial structure within the region. The analysis of the state institutions hierarchy in the Tver oblast made it possible to identify several groups of such centers with the different degree of development of their trans-district functions.
- Myslenkov S.A., Platonov V.S., Toropov P.A., Shestakova A.A. Simulation of storm waves in the Barents Sea
The implementation of spectral wave model SWAN for the Barents Sea, including the Northern part of the Atlantic Ocean was presented. Computations were performed by using special unstructured mesh, which has spatial resolution in the Atlantic Ocean is 1°, in the Barents – 0,5°. The wind forcing data from reanalysis NCER-CFSR and from mesoscale models WRF-ARW and COSMO-CLM used. The simulation results quality was provided by comparing modeled significant wave with satellite data. Numerical calculations are performed for January 2010, because in this time there was a series of storms. For compare we also used the results of AARI-PD2 wave model which implemented in the AARI. It is shown that both models are generally adequately reproduce the wind regime at points of stations. Synoptic variability of wind speed simulated well, but local features simulated much worse. The values of correlation coefficient (average 0.7) is significant and evidence that the overall variability simulated well, but they do not assure good quality of modeling wind waves. Wind wave modeling results revealed that in the current configuration, forcing COSMO-CLM and WRF produces a results close to the NOАА and NCEP-CFSR.
- Baburin V.L., Tsaplina K.G. Limiting factors of the extensive growth of Moscow and its satellite towns
Recent changes in planning configuration of the Moscow oblast towns relating to the transformation of their territorial development are discussed. The changes were measured using the technique of geometrical pattern measurement developed by W. Bunge. A typology of the trends of changes in the town planning patterns is suggested for the first belt of the Moscow agglomeration. Three types of changes are identified, i.e. simplification, stagnation and sophistication of town configuration. Each of them is characteristic of the towns of the inner suburban zone of the Moscow oblast with the active housing construction. If compared with the distance from the Moscow city the following conclusions are possible: the inner belt is generally characterized by dynamic changes of the territorial structure while the towns of the middle belt (20–50 km from the Moscow ring road) undergo either sophistication or stagnation processes. Unlike the Moscow city with its distinct boundaries supported by the status of a separate territorial entity of the Russian Federation the satellite towns of the Moscow oblast are much more subjected to the changes of their configuration. The factors limiting the extensive growth of residential areas within the inner suburbs of the capital are identified.
- Magritsky D.V. Factors and trends of the long-term fluctuations of water, sediment and heat run-off in the lower reaches of the Lena River and the Vilyui River.
Specific features and trends of seasonal and long-term fluctuations of water, suspended sediment and heat runoff in the lower reaches of the Lena River and the Vilyui River are discussed. New estimates of runoff distribution parameters are presented. Both climatic and anthropogenic factors of the spatial and temporal variability of river runoff parameters and water temperature are analyzed, as well as the contribution of the processes characteristic of the upper and lower reaches of the Lena River, the Aldan and Vilyui rivers basins, to these changes. The contribution of different factors to the variability of a number of main hydrological parameters was quantified. The influence of reservoirs on some river runoff parameters and temperature characteristics of the Vilyui River is considered. A number of computational and prognostic empirical relationships are presented.
- Kondrin A.T. Storm surges in the vicinity of the White Sea Biological Station of the Moscow State University
The residual oscillations of the sea level in the vicinity of the MSU Biological Station situated on the shore of a strait connecting two small water areas of the Kandalaksha Bay, i.e. the Great Salma and the Rugozero Guba were studied basing on the observation data of the sea level, air pressure and wind speed during summer and autumn months of 2008–2014. In autumn the change of summer atmospheric circulation to the winter type is accompanied with the intense cyclonic activity, thus increasing the non-tidal oscillations of the sea level. Particular attention is given to the description of surges, their spatial characteristics and their causes, such as the changes of air pressure, wind and barometric situation within the area of study. In certain cases the surges were analyzed using the observation data from both the White Sea Biological Station and other water gauge stations of the White Sea. The heights of surge waves vary from 0.20 to 0.47 m and their duration from 1 to 10 days. Three principal types of storm surge oscillations identified, namely barometric (caused by rather long decrease of the air pressure), wind-generated (resulting from the storm wind impact) and wave-induced (when a single wave comes).
- The 80th anniversary of the birth of Georgiy Anatolievich Voronov
- Andrey Alekseevich Velichko
- Trifonova T.A. About the Atlas of natural-focal diseases
- Index of articles and materials published in the journal in 2015
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