To the 150th anniversary of V.I. Vernadskiy’ birth
- Avessalomova I.A., Savenko A.V., Khoroshev A.V. Landscape-geochemical contrasts of the middle taiga river basins as a factor of the ion discharge formation
The necessity to consider the internal inhomogeneity of river basins for studying factors of the ion discharge formation is discussed. Diversity of hydrochemical parameters of surface waters was revealed relative to the catenary organization of elementary water catchments in the middle taiga subzone. Transformation of the ion composition of river water was found to be interrelated with the landscape-geochemical contrasts of cascade geosystems.
To the centenary of birth of T.V. Zvonkova
Tatiyana Vasil’evna Zvonkova – a greatest Russian physical geographer
Methods of geographical studies
- Samsonov T.E., Podolsky A.S., Yurova N.D. Transformation of representation methods and their correlation with the hierarchy of mapping units
Graphic techniques used for generalization of phenomena on general and social-economic maps are systematized. Principles of the transformation of representation methods and graphic means according to the hierarchy of mapping units are formulated, specific features of the process for general and social-economic maps are described using the examples of how the suggested principles are applied. The results could become a basis for the automated transformation of representation methods on multi-scale maps, as well as traditional maps with the specified degree of detail, which are compiled through the generalization of larger-scale maps.
Geography and ecology
- Golubeva E.I., Zavadskaya A.V. Recreation-induced transformation of volcanic natural complexes in the Kamchatka Krai
Recreation impacts on the natural complexes in the Kamchatka krai are classified and the results of ecological-geographical studies of volcanic landscapes aimed at the investigation of specific features of their degradation under recreational pressure are discussed. A scale to determine the stages of recreational digression of mountain tundra on ash soils has been elaborated and could be applied for the evaluation and further monitoring of recreational impacts within particularly fragile volcanic natural complexes.
- Kharchenko S.V. Relief as a factor of solar exposure in urban areas
An attempt is made to evaluate the influence of relief on the transformation of solar exposure conditions of potential building. Sanitary standards of the solar exposure for rooms which place strict limits to the built-up density make relief an indirect factor of the spatial organization of a city. A scheme of calculating the “weight” of geomorphologic factor which influences the changes of potential built-up density through solar limitations of the town planning is suggested and tested for the towns of Kursk and Tambov.
- Blinov D.V., Perov V.L., Peskov B.E., Rivin G.S. Extreme bora of February 7—8, 2012, in the area of Novorossiysk and its forecast with the COSMO-Ru model
Strong gusty winds are observed during the cold season at the southern slopes of the Caucasus between Anapa and Novorossiysk towns when the pressure gradient is directed approximately normally to the Caucasus range, i.e. from north-east to south-west. The forecast of extreme wind (bora) in the Novorossiysk using the COSMO-Ru model with 7.0 km and 2.2 km grid cells developed at the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia is discussed. A detailed analysis of prognostic fields is performed. It was shown that the model is good in simulating the spatial and temporal structure of the wind field and other meteorological fields.
- Vinogradova O.V., Vinogradova N.N. Response of Caucasian rivers to climate changes
The long-term dynamics of Caucasian rivers discharge shows the alternation of high-water and low-water periods resulting from the cyclic climate changes. A considerable increase of discharge during the recent decade results from the higher precipitation. The effect of glacier melting on river flow is not uniform along the river course and manifests itself within a small distance from the glacier. Climate changes have practically no impact on the intensity of lateral deformations of mountain river channels.
Geography of world economy
- Myaldzin T.N. Geographical features of the world market of the Internet trading in consumer goods and services
Internet trading in consumer goods and services is among the most dynamic sectors of the world economy. Its origination and evolution are the result of transition to the post-industrial type of development and the accompanying changes of consumer behavior paradigms. Under the universal dissemination of information technologies and new technical means individual-psychological factors become more and more important for the development of the internet trading. The world geography of Internet trading shows the large-scale shift towards the Asian region. At the same time the USA keep their position as a global innovation centre.
- Fomichev P.Yu. Levels of the international movement of capital: geographical interpretation
International movement of capital takes place at different levels. Each of them has its own geography. The differences are considerable and some of large countries which are net-exporters of capital at one level can easily be its net-importers at another one and vice versa. China is a largest net-exporter of capital in the wider sense of its international movement, but at the same time shows the net import of capital in its narrow sense. The USA, for a longer period the largest net-importer of capital both in its wider and narrow sense, demonstrates the net export of private capital from year to year. The geography of the international investment position of the nations which is an accumulated value of the export-import of capital in the wider sense depends largely on the cultural factor.
- Imangalin A.F. Spatial models of consumer behavior applied for the assessment of market services distribution
A review of spatial models of consumer behavior used for the assessment of the location of commercial facilities showed two principal groups, i.e. deterministic and stochastic ones. Main types of models of these groups are described, as well as their operation modes, advantages and disadvantages. Recommendations on their use are suggested. The accuracy of the Tyssen model (from the deterministic group) and the Haff model (from the stochastic group) is evaluated. The models were tested for the Ekaterinburg town with the trading centers as commercial objects. The models were evaluated using the data on the population of each building, street and road network and the speed regime, annual mean number of customers per 1 day.
- Starikova A.V. Migration mobility of population in Bavaria
Geography of internal migration and commuting in the German state of Bavaria are analyzed. The results demonstrate the possibility to identify migration systems which unite the regions of emigration and immigration. General comparative description of these systems is presented. Possible spheres of the application of suggested approach for studying the spatial mobility of population are discussed.
- Nikanorova A.D., Dronin N.M. Evaluation of water deficit on irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley relative to the changes in the Toktogul water reservoir operating regime
Water deficit in the Fergana Valley was estimated for a number of scenarios basing on GIS with the elements of computer modeling. The scenarios account for water input during the vegetation period and water consumption for agriculture in a medium year (2000), a bad year (1998) and under the optimization of irrigation rates. Areas with the deficit of water resources were identified in the Fergana Valley. The dependence of water deficit on the Toktogul water reservoir operating regime, as well as the inherited land use structure with excessive quotas of water consumption for irrigation is discussed.
- Zaraiskaya Yu.A., Frol V.V. Seismic activity of the Reykjanes Ridge and its morphological features
Data on the earthquakes within the Reykjanes Ridge during 1997—2009 are analyzed. All events were grouped according to their magnitudes and shown on the bathymetric map of the ridge. The location and character of the focuses along the axis of the ridge were analyzed and the spatial and depth patterns of their distribution were determined in relation to the morphological features of the ridge structure. According to geomorphologic and seismic data the ridge could be divided into three segments with distinct boundaries (transverse faults). Seismic activity along the ridge follows the changes of its relief and is a good indicator of the intensity of tectonic movements.
History of science
- Rychagov G.I., Myslivets B.I., Bolysov S.I.Half-a-century from the publication of a unique book of I.S. Shchukin
To the 80th anniversary of Sergey Mikhailovich Myagkov’ birth (1933-2000)
- Kasimov N.S., Alekseeva N.N. The system of Science and Technology foresight in environmental management priority area