- Kotlyakov V.M. Modernity of geography
A concept of geography as a fundamental science is postulated in the article and the role of geography in substantiating the cyclic character of nature evolution on the Earth is discussed. Basing on the investigation of the ice core from the Vostok station deep well in the Antarctica four climatic cycles are analyzed. The results show that the modern epoch is not unusual in terms of the changes which took part over the last 500 thousand years of the Earth’s history.
Theory and methodology
- Smirnyagin L.V. Methodical approaches to regionalization in social geography
Method of social regionalization is suggested which was elaborated for the regionalization of the USA. It includes five stages – assessment of a possibility of regionalization for particular country, identification of regions, drawing the boundaries, evaluation of the network and successive approximation. It is pointed out that the results of regionalization are of high practical importance for politicians and decision-makers.
Basing on the author’s studies and available data about small forms of glaciation their place within the glaciosphere of the Earth is principally determined.
It was proved that ice movement occurs in snow patches and small glaciers. The rate of such movement, as well as other glaciological parameters, are different for snow patches and glaciers, however there is a gradual transition between these two types with overlaying values and inversion of qualitative trends. Therefore stringent differentiation between small glaciers and perennial snow patches seems unreasonable, because they belong to the same genetic chain and there is no objective qualitative criterion which allows differentiating them. It is also incorrect to suggest a specific transitional type in-between a snow patch and a glacier.
Geography and ecology
- Surkova G.V. Wind regime of the Black Sea coastal zone as a risk factor of air pollution in the lower layer of the atmosphere
The long-term wind mode in the ground layer of the atmosphere of the Black Sea coastal zone is analyzed as a risk factor capable of creating favorable conditions for pollutants accumulation. The estimations were made by calculating the index of recirculation on the basis of standard meteorological observations (wind speed and direction). It is shown that the index of recirculation with high degree of probability reflects presence or absence of daily local circulation, as well as the influence of physiographic features and large-scale atmospheric processes. Estimation of the recurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation situations shows that the areas with weak winds and intensive recirculation are both the least ventilated ones. Concordance of changes of the degree of air recirculation in the coastal zone and important climatic shifts of the XX century was revealed.
Hydroecological limitations of water use in the Irtysh River basin are discussed. It is one of the most problem regions of this country in terms of water economy. The analyzed characteristics are as follows: presence/absence of water resource deficit, pollution of surface waters (basing on a number of water quality indices), adverse water impact in the form of dangerous hydrological phenomena. Complex evaluation of hydroecological limitations has been performed to describe standard, risk and crisis situations for the territory under study.
Statistical analysis of data obtained through the long-term hydrological observations (both vessel- and ground-based) in the Russian part of the Black Sea coastal zone made it possible to reveal annual climatic cycles of the surface water temperature with daily discontinuity. During sea heating period (April-August) there are statistically significant climatic falls of temperature of synoptic-time scales (2 to 9 days). Intensity and duration of such events was statistically evaluated for the period of 1977-2006. Their relations to local winds, coastal waves and hydrological parameters of the general water circulation of the Black Sea are discussed.
Chizhova Yu.N., Dobrolyubov S.A., Budantseva N.A., Surkova G.V., Mukhametov S.S., Myslenkov S.A., Vasilchuk Yu.K. Isotopic estimation of the influence zone of small rivers on the Black Sea surface waters
The article presents new isotopic data on sea water in the coastal zone of the Black Sea. Specific features of the zone where river water mixes with sea-water are revealed.
Hydrochemical structure of intermediate and bottom water masses of the North Atlantic was studied along three trans-Atlantic sections (60°, 53° and 36º N.L.). As a result, principal dissimilarity in Redfield ratios was revealed. It is just nitrogen-phosphorous ratio that is in accord with the classical Redfield ratio. Distribution of other hydrochemical parameters is specific for each region and each structural zone, thus they could be used as tracers of water masses.
Spatial distribution of the concentrations of mobile forms of Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni in the surface soil horizon was studied for the erosion landscape-geochemical systems (ravine and balka) located in the central part of the Protva River basin. Statistical methods were applied to reveal the relations of the element concentrations and granulometric fractions, humus and pH values. The ravine system acts as a transition one for mobile forms of all metals except Cr while the balka one is transitional only for Pb, Co and Ni and slightly accumulative for Fe, Cu, Zn and Cr. In the soils of bottoms from the upper towards the lower reaches there is a decrease in concentrations of the mobile forms of Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni (in the balka system) and of Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and Co (in the ravine one). This decrease shows good correlation with the trend of humus and dust particles distribution, and proves their participation in migration processes in these erosional forms.
The structure of vertical altitudinal zonality showing the regularities of the mountain vegetation cover distribution includes complex characteristic of biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystems. Geobotanical and floristic description of altitudinal vegetation zones and the assessment of botanical diversity and factors influencing its differentiation are only possible if the whole vertical range of vegetation cover of particular mountain area is analyzed. Typological structure of vegetation and its chorological organization in altitudinal zones was studied for the Kuznetsk Alatau Range (within a single type of zonality). The study proves the effectiveness of ecological ordination and mathematical statistical methods, as well as possibility of their application for similar investigations of other mountain areas.
Island floras of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea are described. The islands of the Porya Guba represent particular stages of the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems under the neotectonic uplift conditions. Typical species were identified for each island type (according to I.P.Breslina island typology) and the species density was evaluated. Specific features of island floras under different physiographic conditions (location against land, nature of underlying rocks, etc.) are revealed.
Principal models of innovative development are discussed including the alternative one which is typical of the new EU members. Re-orientation of social and economic links from the East to the West and joining the European integration space made it possible for the countries of Eastern Europe and the Baltic states to carry out structural transformation that became the basis for the formation of the elements of innovative economy. Main factors of social-economic development are analyzed. The index of innovativeness is developed and calculated, and its correlation with the degree of integration into the EU is revealed. The experience of innovative development of the new EU members could be useful in the process of economic modernization in Russia.
Adaptation of external labor migrants in a poly-ethnic region is discussed. Both cultural features of societies and spatial differentiation of territorial development were considered to make the study a geographically-oriented one. The example of the Orenburg oblast is interesting because for a number of years there is a positive trend in poly-ethnic relations there. Specific mechanisms of response to migrants and adaptation institutes are gradually forming. Combination of geographical, sociological and statistical methods of study made it possible to build the most complete picture of current situation.
- Bityukova V.R. Jubilee of the Kazakhstan branch of the Lomonosov Moscow State University
- Anatoly Georgiyevich Voronov – head of the scientific school of biogeography of the Moscow University (to the centenary of his birth)
- Lymarev V.I. Fundamental monograph on the regional delta studies
- Krasovskaya T.M. Complex landscape description of the Kuril Islands
- Mikhailov V.N., Magritsky D.V. New approaches in the investigation of extreme hydrological processes
Articles and materials published in the Moscow University Gerald. Series 5. Geography in 2011