Alexeev A.I., Baklanov P.Ya., Snytko V.A. Lomonosov and geography
Velikotsky M.A. Lomonosov’s discussion on placing the border between Europe and Asia
In his discussions M.V.Lomonosov regarded Europe and Asia as large mega-forms of the Earth’s surface, the border between them should follow the low parts of the valleys of Don, Volga and Pechora rivers. This border is a structural-geomorphologic one. Thus M.V.Lomonosov finalized the Ancient version of the border between Europe and Asia. His placing of the border could be considered a classical antique one as distinct from the new version suggested by V.N.Tatishchev.
About the development of the North
- Ogorodov S.A., Romanenko F.A., Solomatin V.I. Lomonosov and the development of the Northern Sea Route
The article deals with the activities of Lomonosov as a geographer, a nature investigator and a founder of the Northern Sea Route development. Aiming at the strengthening of the Russian Empire he argued the possibility of the through passage in the Arctic ocean, investigated the oceanography and the climate of the Arctic basin, suggested the original classification of sea ice, organized expeditions to explore the Northern Sea Route, Alaska and the Far East and supplied them with various instruments.
Scientific ideas of Lomonosov about the Arctic Ocean are reviewed. His views on sea ice formation and location are discussed, as well as on the distribution of winds and sea currents. The history of the “open polar sea” hypothesis is outlined. A plan of expedition through the Arctic Ocean is reported.
- Konishchev V.N. The role of Lomonosov in the progress of cryolithology
The role of Lomonosov in the progress of cryolithology as a science is discussed. The most important basic principles of permafrost zone formation suggested in the second half of the 18th century are fully in accordance with modern scientific concepts.
About the terrestrial strata
- Safianov G.A. Concepts of relief in Lomonosov’s works
The influence of the natural environment of the White Sea area on the evolution of M.V.Lomonosov’s interests and character is discussed, as well as geomorphologic and geopolitical aspects of his work and their impact on the progress of Russian geomorphology and the overall interest to the Russian parts of the Arctic seas coast.
- Sudakova N.G. Lomonosov’s traditions in the investigations of the nature of the East-European Plain
Regularities of the spatial-temporal evolution of lithosystems were revealed on the basis of the system approach and modeling. Spatial variability (zonality, provinciality, sectoral differentiation) and evolutionary tendencies (trends and rythmicity) were identified for the parameters characterizing the material composition of glacial deposits. Original palaeogeographical concept of lithogenesis is suggested which systematizes its spatial and temporal regularities. A program of inter-regional lithological correlation of marker horizons was realized on the basis of lythological-palaeogeographical regionalization. Debating points concerning number, ages and limits of glaciations were explained and their structure and dynamics were reconstructed. Spatial-temporal model of glaciations rhythmic within the East European Plain was improved and the regional stratigraphic scheme was critically analyzed and corrected. Progressive ideas of Lomonosov about the evolution of nature are correlated with the above-discussed problems of palaeogeography.
About aerial and water phenomena
While making astronomic observations of the Venus passing the Sun disk n 1761 M.V. Lomonosov discovered a number of optical phenomena which he explained in terms of the presence of the atmosphere around the planet. This discovery marked the beginning of investigations of atmospheres and climates of other planet including the extrasolar ones. These studies revealed a wide variety of different planetary conditions.
At the same time it was revealed that physical processes governing atmospheric processes and leading to quite different results are practically the same for all planets. This proves the fundamental character of knowledge obtained by the “terrestrial” meteorology. Investigation of planetary atmospheres is therefore particularly important both for discovery of other universes and search for life in the Universe, and in terms of the application of acquired knowledge for solving the Earth’s issues, such ad climate change and modeling of the atmosphere dynamics.
Alexeevsky N.I., Chalov R.S. Lomonosov’s ideas for the research of surface waters
Principal ideas of M.V. Lomonosov about river hydrology and channel studies are discussed. We analyzed their importance for the evolution of the concept of natural water cycle, hydrography, water studies, hydrometrics, hydrochemistry, erosion and channel studies providing relevant citations from the works of this prominent scientist. Many Lomonosov’s ideas went far ahead of the conclusions made centuries later on the basis of modern scientific concepts and extensive observation data.
About living nature
Miklyayeva I.M. Lomonosov about the living nature
M.V. Lomonosov influenced many lines of science including geography and biology which investigate living nature and its interrelated components. Several ideas of M.V. Lomonosov were not understood by his contemporaries and gained recognition as late as the middle of the 20th century.
The article deals with scientific innovations if Russian cartography which evolution stemmed from the work of the great Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov. He was the founder of the process and contributed a lot in the progress of cartography as a science. He was the first to formulate scientific principles of mapping and argue the cognitive role of maps. Innovative development of the scientific basics of modern cartography in Russia is closely related to the formation and activities of the scientific school of geographical cartography of the Moscow University – the institution founded by M.V. Lomonosov.
The paper discusses the links between Lomonosov’s ideas, instrumental design and scientific and organizational activities in the sphere of cartography and modern technologies of remote sensing and aerospace research.
Students to Lomonosov
- Alexeenko N.A., Timonin S.A., Loshkareva A.R., Kalutskov V.N., Arshinova S.N. Cartographic representation of the life and work of Lomonosov
- Aigina E.V., Repkina T.Y. Results of the complex expedition of the Scientific Student Society of the MSU Faculty of Geography devoted to the 300th anniversary of M.V.Lomonosov
- Yemelianova L.G. Complex geographical studiea aimed at the development of environmental education in the Ustiansky raion of the Arkhangelsk oblast