To the centenary of the birth of Julian Glebovich Saushkin
Theory and methodology
- Chalov R.S., Chalov S.R., Alexeevsky N.I. Structural levels of formation and typology of braided river channels
The broad variety of braided channels could be grouped into five structural levels, i.e. point-braided, bar-braided, island-braided, anabranching and anastomosing. Certain morphological units are identified, such as bars, islands, island sections, dissected floodplain and trunk channels, branches, arm channels and floodplain channels. Conditions of island-braided channels formation are described in terms of morphology, regime, morphometric and hydro-morphological characteristics.
Malkhazova S.M., Kotova T.V., Mironova V.A., Shartova N.V., Ryabova N.V. Medical-geographical Atlas of Russia “Natural-foci (zoonotic) diseases”: the concept and first results
The Atlas of Russia “Natural-foci (zoonotic) diseases” integrates diverse and multifaceted information with the aim to present a spatial pattern of the spread of zoonotic diseases within the RF territory. The concept of the Atlas, i.e. its scientific basis, its aims and methodological approaches, its content and mapping procedures, is described. Two maps of 30 already compiled to the moment are presented as fragments. The first results are discussed, as well as the possible applications of the Atlas.
Geography and ecology
- Linnik V.G. Technogenic radionuclides within the floodplains of the Techa River and the middle courses of the Yenisei River
The article analyzes 137Cs contamination of floodplain sediments of the Techa River and the middle courses of the Yenisei River as a result of discharges from the nuclear fuel plants. The results of field studies, both radiometric survey and sampling, are analyzed. The landscape differentiation of 137Cs contamination depends on specific features of suspended matter deposition on the floodplains. A secondary contamination zone was identified for the Techa River (up to 0,7 m) which was formed due to erosion of alluvial soils in the Asanov bogs and subsequent transfer of bottom sediments. Correlation between radionuclide contamination and duration of inundation for particular floodplain segments during 1960-2000 was analyzed for the Balchug floodplain area (the Yenisei River).
- Gorbarenko E.V., Eremina I.D. Changes of aerosols and the chemical composition of the atmosphere in Moscow during the recent 50 years
Pollution and self-purification of the atmosphere was analyzed basing on the complex interpretation of parameters characterizing the gaseous composition of the air, chemical composition of precipitation and the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of the atmosphere and using the results of observations of the state of urban atmosphere carried out by the MSU Meteorological Observatory. Correlations between the AOT, mean concentrations of precursor gases and the presence of particular ions in precipitation were identified. Changes of AOT and small gaseous components of the atmosphere and precipitation during the 2002 smaze episode as compared with the “clean” period are discussed. The role of precipitation for self-purification of the urban air is evaluated. This is of particular interest if the unfavorable environmental situation in Moscow caused by 2010 forest and peat-bog fires is taken into account.
Evaluation of interacting natural and technical systems within the routes of main gas pipelines within the cryolithozone is discussed. An evaluation procedure based on specific parameters of stability and “aggression” of cryogeosystems is suggested. The results of studies along the route of the Nadym-Punga main gas pipeline are presented.
At the beginning of the 20th century the rapid growth of the Moscow city put the urgent problem of its water supply. It became necessary to find a new source of water for both drinking water supply and providing good sanitary conditions of the city. A canal was built to connect the Volga River with the Moskva River and the water resource problem has been solved for several decades.
Due to their natural recreation potential and the closeness to the agglomeration water reservoirs of the Moscow canal, and the Klyazma water reservoir among them, were intensively used for recreation purposes. The growing recreational pressure makes it necessary to evaluate the present-day state of the water body and the quality of its water. Samples of water were taken at 10 gauges during April and August 2010.
The results of analysis show that during the period of the reservoir functioning concentrations of water pollutants increased several times because of the growing anthropogenic pressure. For the majority of analyzed compounds they are still below the maximum permissible concentrations. The highest values are characteristic of the spring high water period, while in summer they fall down all over the reservoir.
Methods of geographical studies
The article deals with the main approaches to the compilation of the DEBRIS 3D mathematical model of landfall material movement, as well as the results of modeling for the Attabad landfall episode in the Khunza River valley. The model describes the landfall movement by the trajectories of the mass centers of particular rick fragments, which are in elastic interaction with one another and with the bottom surface and undergo the influence of adhesion.
Integration of the schemes of economic-geographical regions
Procedure of the retrospective analysis of the schemes of integrated economic-geographical regionalization is suggested, which is based on the clustering algorithm and could be applied for investigation of territories as well as for the advanced integrated regionalization. The procedure was tested for the territory of the Urals and the Volga River region. A map of general boundaries of the integrated economic-geographical regions was compiled; types of boundaries were identified, as well as the factors responsible for their configuration.
Economic parameters for the towns of the Russian Arctic are compared. Typology of “polar towns” is suggested and the main lines of restructuring for each group are identified.
Both landforms and sediments of the Manych River depression clearly evidenced the existence of four straights which were the pathways for the Caspian Sea transgressive water movement to the Pont during the Pleistocene. Configuration of the straits, channel relief,top and base outlines of the sediment sequence – all reflect specific tectonic evolution of the Manych River depression. Its present-day sediment surface bears traces of the Burtas Lake and Khvalynian straits, while more ancient geomorphologic structures are buried under sediments. Gentle sloping of the strait bed indicates hydro-dynamically undisturbed environments.
Aspects of the structural and functional organization of ornithogenic geosystems which are typical to islands with large sea bird colonies are discussed. Bird numbers and composition of populations correlate with the landscape structure of the island. The ornithogenic pressure results in the increased productivity of phytocenoses while the diversity of species falls down. These trends are accompanied with modification of the fractional and biogeochemical structure of grass phytomass. Important positive feedbacks were revealed for the island geosystems with sea bird colonies. Two radial biogeochemical barriers were identified, i.e. plant barrier with accumulation of cation-producing elements (Ag, Zn, Mn, and Cu), as well as of И and Mo; and the barrier in the peat layers of soil which additionally intakes low-biophil elements (Sn, Pb, etc.)
ВМУ География №4 - 2011
- To the memory of Andrey Petrovich Kapitsa
To the memory of Andrey Petrovich Kapitsa
At the dissertation councils of the MSU Faculty of Geography in 2010
Lukyanova S.A., Mislivets V.I. The VIth readings from Shchukin
Bolikhovskaya N.S., Taldenkova E.E. The 2010 readings from Markov
Bityukova V.R., Zubarevich N.V., Tikhotskaya I.S. Russian-Japanese seminar on natural resources and environmental problems
- The great citizen of the world: to the 150th anniversary of the birth of F. Nansen (1861-1930)
- Dyakonov K.N., Samoilova G.S. Modelling of high-mountain systems (landscapes)
- Tikunov V.S. Urgent problems and issues in geoecology
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