Theory and methodology
- Kislov A.V., Grebenets V.I., Evstigneev V.M., Konishchev V.N., Sidorova M.V., Surkova G.V., Tumel’ N.V. Effects of possible climate warming in the 21st century for Northern Eurasia
Changes in climate-related natural resources which could occur within the East-European Plain and Western Siberia under the influence of climate change in the 21st century are discussed. A methodology of forecast for climate-related natural resources and climate-dependent sectors of economy is described.
Agriculturally important climatic resources are evaluated as well as specific parameters of the heating period. Possible transformation of perennially frozen grounds under the global warming is forecasted. Engineering-geocryological parameters were calculated; effects of changes in the carrying capacity of refrigerated piles and the intensity of cryogenic heaving were estimated. Changes of water resources and hydropower under the global warming were analyzed. The forecast of changes in the annual runoff and the evaluation of spring flood volume are of primary importance.
Geography and ecology
- Suslova E.G., Zavialova E.A. Conservation of rare plant species in the Moscow region
More than 80% of 205 vascular plants included in the Red Book of the Moscow oblast are under protection within 242 regional and 4 federal nature protection areas situated within the territory of the Moscow oblast. Physiographic provinces differ in the number of protected plant species: rather small Moskvoretsko-Okskaya and Srednerusskaya provinces are particularly rich in rare plants. The majority of rare species are those of meadow-steppe, steppe, forest and aquatic-bog plants. The most valuable epiassociations are enumerated that host the largest numbers of protected rare plant species.
- Tsibart A.S., Gennadiev A.N. Associations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fire-affected soils
The investigation of fire-affected soils in a number of regions made it possible to identify the composition of PAH associations, which are formed in the process of burning of various materials. Background association of hydrocarbons is the same for mineral soils of all sites and includes naphthalene, fluorene and pyrene; higher concentrations of tetraphene and the absence of substituted pyrenes are typical to the background peat bog soils. After fires the association of the soils of coniferous forest sites is enriched with phenanthrene, benz(ghi)perylene, rhetene, chrysene and tetraphene in different combinations. Peat bog fires contribute to the accumulation of phenanthrene, chrysene, benz(a)pyrene and tetraphene. In soils under grasses the background association of polyarhenes is preserved, but with higher amounts of fluorene and naphthalene.
Methods of geographical studies
An attempt is made to define and structure the core of geodemographical studies by accentuating the demographic geography, or demogeography, as a key line of research within the geography of population, thus contributing to the intensification of this kind of studies. Approaches to investigation and assessment of the demographic development of territories are analyzed, and basics of methodology and procedures of demographic studies are elaborated. The general methodological basis of demogeographical research is suggested with subdivision of research tasks by particular stages; the original algorithm of work is proposed.
Sokolov D.I., Kremenetskaya E.R., Lomova D.V., Arakel’yants A.D., Filippova P.S. Specific features of turbidity regime in a valley reservoir under low water level
Basing on the hydrological observations of summer turbidity regime in the Mozhaisk reservoir the importance of bottom sediment detachment in the balance of suspended matter is discussed. Under low water level in the reservoir during the summer of 2009 the bottom sediment detachment was the main source of suspended matter in the central part of the reservoir when the wind became stronger, particularly if the temperature fell down. The intensity of matter exchange between the water mass and bottom sediments was several times higher than the transport of suspended matter towards the Mozhaisk waterworks.
Cartography and geoinformatics
The article deals with different aspects of developing cartographic databases for modern social-economic maps.
The problems of relationships between Russia and Ukraine and scenarios of their further development are considered in the article. The problems facing the local population of frontier regions are described. Particular importance of geoinformation systems for the study of social and economic relationships between Russia and Ukraine is emphasized. A geoinformation system for analysis of relationships between the countries is suggested. The requirements and the tasks of the GIS are described, as well as the data and research methods. The pattern of elaboration of the GIS structure and thematic content is considered in the context of migration processes.
Lurie I.K., Alyautdinov A.R., Kalinkin I.V., Semin V.N. Elaboration of an interactive knowledge base of the Caspian region within the CaspInfo European scientific collaborative project
The natural heritage of the unique Caspian region belongs to five coastal states, i.e. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Iran, Russia and Turkmenistan. Assessment, monitoring and conservation of the unique ecosystem of the Caspian region require the development of technologies and tools for acquisition, structuring, storage and use of the large amounts of information (scientific, legal, administrative, natural and anthropogenic spatial data). The article deals with the elaboration of a management system for information resources of a specialized web-service, i.e. the knowledge base of the Caspian region.
The genesis, actual state and transformation of sea ice of the Arctic Ocean under the current climate warming are discussed. The series of ice observation data are not long enough to allow the reliable forecast of the ice cover state by the end of the century. Formation and permanent existence of sea ice in the Arctic are preconditioned by macroscaled physiographic and hydrological causes.
A three-level morphological typology of linear depression mesorelief is suggested. Linear depressions are grouped according to their topographic position, planimetric configuration and their role in the present-day fluvial systems. Regular spatial changes of the structure of linear depressions network were revealed: the length of appropriate mesoforms and the complexity of linear depressions systems increase towards the south-east. In the edge zone of the Moscow Ice Age glaciation fluvioglacial linear depressions are particularly widespread (the end of the Moscow Ice Age). Linear depression mesorelief of the rest of the territory is of fluvial genesis: most of the linear depressions are the ancient erosion forms, i.e. upper parts and tributaries of the present-day valley-and-balkas network buried by slope sediments. The erosion systems were formed under landscape and climatic conditions of the Late Moscow Ice Age when the depth and density of erosion dissection generally exceed the present-day values. During the cold Valdai Ice Age upper parts of the erosion network were filled up with slope sediments.
Budantseva N.A., Bychkov A.Yu., Chizhova Yu.N., Vasil’chuk Yu.K. Distribution of δ18O and δD in hydrothermal waters of the Kamchatka Peninsular
Isotope composition of oxygen and hydrogen was determined for both water and condensate of spontaneous gases of geothermal springs near the Uzon and Karymsky volcanoes and in the Geyser Valley of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Water of the springs is isotopically heavier than the condensate of gases: by 4-11‰ for δ18O and by 16-46‰ for δD. This is the obvious result of isotope fractioning under high temperature leading to the enrichment of thermal waters with heavier isotopes. The analysis of δ18O and δD distribution in hydrothermal waters shows the genetic links between thermal and meteoric waters.
To the 75th birthday of Alexander Pavlovich Gorkin
To the 75th birthday of Gennady Alexandrovich Safianov
To the 60th birthday of Vyacheslav Leonidovich Baburin
Mazurov Yu.L., Tikunov V.S. The Arctic: a dialogue for development
Romanova E.P., Alexeeva N.N. The All-Russia Scientific Conference Innovations in Geoecology: Theory, Practice, Education
Golovanov D.L. The International Conference Ecological Consequences of Biospheric Processes in the Ecotone Zone of Southern Siberia and Central Asia
Chalov S.R. 2010 Conference of the International Geographical Union in Tel Aviv
Tikunov V.S. Space-based educational technologies – investments in the future
Prokhorova E.A. New aspects of general economic mapping